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Glossary of Terms

Amblyopia: Commonly called a “lazy eye”. It is an eye that has reduced vision that is not correctable by wearing corrective lenses.

Binocular: The use of both eyes simultaneously in such a manner that each retinal image contributes to the final perception.

Board Certified Behavioral Optometrist: See also Board Certified Developmental Optometrist. Both titles are used interchangeably.

Board Certified Developmental Optometrist: A Board Certified Developmental Optometrist is an optometrist who has additional training in the testing, diagnosis and treatment of vision disorders. Board certification happens through comprehensive testing completed with the College of Optometrists in Vision Development.

CVA: Cerebrovascular accident.

Diplopia: Seeing double when trying to focus.

Directionality: The ability to consistently and correctly relate left and right, top and bottom, clockwise and counterclockwise manner and be able to continue properly in tasks which depend upon direction. The ability to project the internal awareness of the two sides of the body, the spatial world of the individual.

Esotropia: An eye that turns in.

Exotropia: An eye that turns out.

Eye Teaming: The ability of both eyes to point at the same object at the same time.

Eye Tracking: The ability to simultaneously and smoothly follow words on a page or moving objects in space.

Focusing: The ability to look quickly from distance to near or near to distance without experiencing blurry vision.

Hand-Eye Coordination: A relationship between visual and kinesthetic clues, resulting in accurate, manual, spatial localization.

Intermittent: Occasionally happening, not constant.

Laterality: The ability to consistently and correctly understand one’s own left and right, top and bottom, front and back. The internal awareness and integration of the two sides of the body.

Monocular: Having or relating to one eye.

Ophthalmologist: A physician who specializes in the medical and surgical care of the eyes and visual systems, and in the prevention of eye disease and injury.

Optometrist: A primary health care provider who specializes in the examination, diagnosis, treatment and management of diseases and disorders of the visual system, the eye and associated structures.

Perceptual Skills: Visual memory, visual discrimination, spatial relationships, visual closure, visual/auditory integration, visual motor integration, directionality, laterality and bi-laterality are all examples of perceptual skills.

Retained Reflexes: Reflexes needed for the birthing process and the first few weeks of life that did not develop into more complicated reflexes.

Strabismus: Commonly called a “crossed eye” or “wandering eye”. It is an eye that turns in or out.

TBI: Traumatic brain injury.

Vision Therapist: A person trained to implement vision therapy procedures.

Vision Therapy: A series of visual procedures used to retrain the brain and eyes to work smoothly and efficiently together.

Visual/Auditory Integration: The ability to match auditory and visual stimuli in the brain.

Visual Acuity: The ability to see things at a given distance.

Visual Closure: The ability to recognize familiar figures that have been partially obscured or removed.

Visual Discrimination: The ability to see the similarities and differences in shapes, forms, objects, letters, words, etc.

Visual Memory: The ability to remember what has been seen, without relying on subvocalization, tactile, or auditory feedback. The act of forming a mental visual image of something seen before or visualized.

Visual Motor Integration: The ability to match visual and motor skills in the brain, such as copying a series of pictures or forms.

Visual Space Orientation: The ability of the eyes and brain to work together to perceive relative positions of objects in the visual field